Personaggi, Avvenimenti, Notizie, Invenzioni e Curiosità dal Mondo della Scienza


Posted by curiositybox su 27 marzo 2008

There is something new in the scientific debate on climate change and in particular on “greenhouse effect”.
A gas so far would be considered just as responsible for the manipulation of the natural cycle of the seasons, extreme weather events and “greenhouse effect”.
The gas issue is the water vapour produced by burning any, either oil, natural gas, wood or other fuel that contains even minimally hydrogen.
This is because the combustion is nothing more than a chemical reaction with oxygen from combining chemistry between Oxygen and Hydrogen (example content. In gasoline and other hydrocarbon-that is composed by Hydrogen and Carbon-) obtain “water Synthesis”, or if you prefer “water of smog. “

What true action is exerted by summary issued in the form of superheated steam (and therefore invisible to the naked eye) in the context of the greenhouse effect?
With a metaphor borrowed from the world economy, if the greenhouse effect was a joint-stock water vapour, compared to all other greenhouse gases, would be the majority shareholder in the sense that its value is estimated in ‘order of 70%.
Please note that the greenhouse gases taken into consideration by the Commission’s Scientific studying climate change are only four: Carbonic anhydride (whose role that is just 15%), methane, CFCs and Nitrogen protoxide (the sum total of recent gas worth another 15%).

Curiously, although for now is not taken into consideration, confirm that the water vapour plays a primary role on the greenhouse effect by the Commission is composed of 2,000 scientists gathered under UN supervision in I.P.C.C. (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and that were asked to check the influence of human activities on the climate of our planet.
Indeed, in their first report, presented in Sundsvall on August 1990, scientists working for the IPCC have said: “We are sure of: …. emissions caused by human substantially increase the concentration of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs ) and nitrogen protoxide (N2O). These increases will intensify the greenhouse effect …. The main greenhouse gas, water vapour, will increase as a result of global warming, in turn increasing. “

But not enough.
Andre Hufty, professor in the Department of Geography, LAVAL, known for his research on climate change, in his book “The Weather” shows a chart that illustrates the greater value of steam for the thermal balance of the Earth’s surface .
The measures found in the course of various researches and reported in the chart charge to water vapour absorption strong action against infrared radiation “medium” and “distant” (define medium radiation ranging from 3 and 24 micro meters, far those above 24 micro meters in length), far greater than for example by anhydride Carbonic.

Even in the spectrum of infrared radiation “forthcoming” (0.7 to 3 meters micro) steam presents a strong absorption bands in five against one covering carbon dioxide. One can therefore assume that the water vapour is a greenhouse gas far more effective CO2 (about 10 times as much) for the purpose of absorption of heat into the atmosphere.

To support the theory that water vapour is the main actor in the role of thermo regulator Earth there is also the reports collected by Curt Suplee, scientific journalist of the “Washington Post”.
An article, published in the prestigious magazine “National Geographic” in May 1998, about the greenhouse effect wrote: “Without our atmosphere the average global temperature would be around – 18 ° C, instead of the current + 15 ° C. The light of the Sun get to hit the surface of the earth with a ‘energy than three light bulbs from 100 watts per square metre, to the ground causing the emission of infrared rays, as if it were a giant planet heater. Without barriers, all that heat revert to scatter the cosmic void. Thanks, however, the presence of an only part of it can escape into space. rest remains trapped in the layers of air lower, which contain various gas (WATER VAPOR, CO2, methane etc..) can absorb infrared rays outgoing. …. The whole process is called “greenhouse effect” and is due for the most part the main greenhouse gas, water vapour ” .
“If the temperature rises – continues Suplee – evaporate larger quantities of water and as a warmer may retain
A greater measure of water vapour comes about a vicious circle: The more air warms more increases its content of water vapour …”.
It is a pity, however, that Suplee then concludes that human activities are insignificant for the volume of water present in the atmosphere.

Going back to our premise, namely that the steam has some influence on the climate of our planet, what are the amount released into the atmosphere by human activities?
Although students know that the chemical reaction of a hydrocarbon occur, as well as heat, carbon dioxide and water, perhaps not everyone knows that 1 kg of petrol or diesel, once burned, you get 1.4 kg water in the form of superheated steam and that 1 kg of methane gas is produced even 2.2 kg of water.
If we examine the issue from a more complete these are exactly the products of combustion:

From 1 kg of gasoline are produced 1.4 kg of water and 3.09 CO2

From 1 kg of methane gas “” 2.2 kg of water and 2.75 CO2

Then, after each combustion of hydrocarbon vapour water is present, compared to the total mass, with a percentage ranging from 30 to 45%.
Since the present state of knowledge is great attention to the quantities of carbon dioxide released with the use of fossil fuels, much attention should turn to steam “synthesis”, which applies in large numbers about the same amount allocated to carbon.
With a particularity: the same quantity delivered steam of combustion has an absorption of infrared rays increased carbon dioxide, the gas to be more important among those called “greenhouse effect”.

Sample production of water synthesis (water vapour combustion)

To have a concrete reference just think that:
— A car of 2000 c.c. capacity travelling at 100 km / h in an hour enters into the atmosphere 8 Kg of water in the form of superheated steam, at about 200 ° C;
— A thermal power plant of a large condominium or a small industry (1,000,000 Kcal / h) in an hour enters into the atmosphere 130 Kg of water at temperatures above 200 ° C;
— A boiler large (10,000,000 Kcal / h) in an hour enters into the atmosphere 1,300 Kg of water to over 200 ° C;
— A merchant ship large tonnage after an hour at most navigation system has entered into the atmosphere from 10,000 to 15,000 kg of water to over 200 ° C;
— A jet type BOEING 747 for every hour of flight fully enters into the atmosphere 18,000 kg of water to over 500 ° C;
— Central thermo-electric powered fuel oil, which delivers 500 Mega Watts / h (not very large, by the way), after an hour of operation regime has entered into the atmosphere around 130,000 Kg of water to over 400 ° C:
After 24 hours of work has produced so much water to fill a swimming pool 100 meters long, 10 meters wide and 3.12 meters deep for a total of 3,120 tons of water!

Environmental impact of the combustion steam
In addition to the considerable amount released into the atmosphere will be henceforth considered the vaporization temperature of the steam from combustion.
According to Dino Dini, Director of the Department of Energy at the University of Pisa, missile expert, who has worked several years as an aerospace researcher at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, the masses of steam combustion, but not widespread uniformly create an imbalance in the general atmospheric circulation. The steam combustion of fact can ascend through turbulence created by itself and by virtue of natural ascending currents are generated by solar radiation, a quote of 50 km or more. Through research conducted during space flights and also through special supersonic aircraft for example have been identified clusters of steam even to 80 km in height.

According to Professor considerations. Dini the phenomenon has been neglected until now, as it was always thought that the water vapour released by the combustion will expand and condensing within the first 10 km in altitude and therefore falls to the ground soon. But a part of this find ascending currents, as privileged alleys, which make it possible to go up even more, at least this should happen to the water vapour produced by power plants and all engines circulating on the Earth’s surface, while a speech in Part deserves water vapour released into the atmosphere by air (which already travelling to the shares between 8 and 10 km) and all space flights.
However, the steam released from a low altitude can make many thousands of km before falling to the ground.
Proof of this are the grains of sand transported from Africa up to European latitudes, and the discovery of ice in Greenland metals contained in the catalytic converters. These metals, particularly platinum, palladium and rhodium, are undoubtedly been “sent” by the various exhaust pipes of vehicles catalysed circulating in the United States and Canada: it should be noted that the distance as the crow flies between the United States and Greenland is more than 3,000 km.

Molecular weight and “balloon effect”
The phenomenon of the rise in share and long movement of particles too heavy, as dust grains and metals, is because water vapour results in a “balloon effect”, as its specific gravity is the 3 / 5 of dry and as such can drag itself with substances also far heavier than air.
A more detailed explanation suggests that everything happens for the difference in molecular weight: that water vapour is 18, while the dry air has a molecular weight of almost 29.
Then steam, under different molecular weight (one might even say thanks to the lower density of steam compared to other atmospheric gases), acts as a force directed upwards.

Water summary to irrigate the desert
To complete the budget of steam generated from combustion also should consider that resulting from the combustion of detonating gas, which is found in the vicinity of oil wells and metan producing, whose quantity amounts to significant values.
Suffice it to say that the American researcher Ralph M. Rotty, OAK RIDGE INSTITUTE FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS, estimated that the amount of gas burned detonating with large grids that release long outbreaks are worth about 3% of all the oil burned for human use.
To get an idea of what it means a combustion gas detonating just see photographs night shooting in the course of “Defence Meteorological Satellite Program” that the U.S. Air Force shows many light sources that expand the oil fields of Algeria, Libya and Nigeria of up to the Persian Gulf area, tangible sign of outbreaks coincide with the mining areas (there are some pictures taken, such as wells extraction of natural gas, which showed a summation of some flames, whose size is comparable to about ¼ (one quarter) of the surface of Sicily).

If we could take action on these plants that burn gas detonating with a technological intervention would certainly appropriate, as well as some energy recovery, such “synthetic water” available in places usually desert.
This objective would be easily accessible through a forced ventilation obtained from energy needlessly wasted heat today with the flame and thanks to low temperatures can be reached in desert areas from dusk until dawn.
Given that the ‘water of smog, “containing compounds weak percentage Azoth, has already confirmed – in the course of 10 years of testing – to own property fertilizers, you can imagine what could have utility, for example to irrigate and Food used to new areas or oasis for agricultural use or nursery flora and even after, through the transport of that water in special pipes.

Other sources of water vapour combustion
Finally, other sources of water vapour released at very high temperatures (sometimes superior to 800 ° C) are the forest fires (1 Kg of green wood can also produce more than 1 kg of water summary is because it is composed lignin of hydrogen, both for moisture in the trunk) and volcanic eruptions: the first is perhaps attributable to once again, the second to Nature.
While human activities could be managed so as to monitor the environmental impact, volcanic eruptions are uncontrollable forces of nature.
The important thing, however, is not to create a synergy between the forces unleashed by nature with the environmental impact due to human activities.

Volcanic eruptions and the “summers without sun”
That the volcanic eruptions from the sun can also affect the evolution of atmospheric general circulation and climate change on the global level is now established after the eruption of Tambora (1815) and Krakatoa (1883) – in Indonesia – the climate of the Earth subdued strong repercussions. The years following the eruption of Tambora were cold, especially in Europe and the USA, such that the annals agronomic Americans called that period as “year without summer”. The cause was attributed to the spread of dust high into the atmosphere, which made brake by solar energy, like a big umbrella suspended in our atmosphere.
But no physical atmosphere to date has demonstrated that volcanic dust has been so high (70-80 km) from ascending currents generated by steam superheated to more than 700 ° C. In fact, all the volcanic eruptions have a content of water vapour can also get 80% compared to the total mass of smoke, steam we have said before has a specific gravity less than that of dry (exactly 3 / 5) .

A new hypothesis on the disappearance of dinosaurs
In the light of these considerations on the combustion and steam extending them to other periods in the history of our planet could even figure out why dinosaurs disappeared that many millions of years ago populated the Earth. At Dinosaur there was a lush vegetation, tropical forests and even many active volcanoes. Would have been precisely the volcanoes to enter into enormous quantities of superheated steam (which has created strong currents ascending), which has dragged along the volcanic dust and sulphur compounds, spreading them in the area defined mesosphere (about 70 Km tall), around the entire planet. The dust and sulphur compounds have gradually changed the mechanism of receipt of solar energy that reaches the Earth’s soil, producing then those changes to the climate which led to the disappearance of dinosaurs.

Of course, all the negative effects described here, starting from the greenhouse to come to impact on the living caused by atmospheric pollution could be avoided if the exhaust gases of combustion any were issued at temperatures close to the ambient and managed through a process controlled technology.
In fact, with an appropriate technology that exploits the latent heat contained in exhaust gas could be obtained:

1) estimated energy savings from 8 to 18%;

2) a management controlled release and a drastic reduction of the greenhouse effect;

3) a liquid obtained by condensation of smoke called “water summary” usefully
Recycled for agricultural or industrial chemical.

Info: (search: NO SMOG)

copyright 2008  CURIOSITYBOX



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